Ombule marker <=ya ~ -i ~ -e>

Abstract. By Jean Robert Opgenort, 1999. Paper presented at the European Project on Himalayan Languages. Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, The Netherlands, 18 June 1999.

In this presentation, I will introduce a formal and semantic characterization of the Ombule marker <=ya ~ -i ~ -e>.This marker can be added to the following types of word classes:

  • nouns and pronouns, e.g. uŋgu ‘I’ > uŋgu=ya ‘me too’
  • interrogative pro-forms, e.g. ama ‘what’ > ama=ya ‘nothing (at all)’
  • verbs (only finite items) which occur in:
    • main clauses, e.g. Un thal baː-nu-i? ‘Where are you (s)?’
    • subordinate clauses, e.g. Un thal baː-nu-i, ung il ywa-ŋ-m.‘Where ever you (s) are, I will come.’
    • subordinate clauses after the ‘conditional’ suffix <-ŋwa>, e.g. Ama ja-m-ŋwa-i, ung khwakti gwa-ʔu-mei. ‘Whatever they (p) eat, I [will have] given it to them (p).’

Lexical items which contain marker <=ya~-i~-e> are generally translated into Nepali by means of the word pani ‘too, also’. This marker may examplify a general pattern with respect to the dependent elements in Ombule that morphophonological simplification or reduction is accompanied by a change in morphological status, i.c. clitic /ya/ becomes affix /i, e/.